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  • “Overhead Triceps Extensions are (NOT) Better Than Neutral Arms Triceps Extensions”

    “Overhead Triceps Extensions are (NOT) Better Than Neutral Arms Triceps Extensions”

    Review of Questionable Conclusionsof Scientific Studies (a series) Part 1 A study was recently done which attempted to compare the resultant muscle growth of two different triceps exercises. The two exercises that were compared were the “Overhead Cable Triceps Extension”…and the standard “Cable Triceps Pushdown”. The 21 participants did one of the exercises with their […]


  • Levels of Complexity in the Biomechanical Analysis of Secondary Limb Participation During Resistance Exercise

    Levels of Complexity in the Biomechanical Analysis of Secondary Limb Participation During Resistance Exercise

    The fundamental premise of resistance exercise is to load a target muscle by applying a resistance source to a limb that is operated by that target muscle, and then contracting that muscle against the opposing resistance. The simplest example of this is grasping a dumbbell in one’s hand, and performing a “Dumbbell Curl” (aka a […]


  • Lombard’s Paradox: Misapplied

    Lombard’s Paradox: Misapplied

    In 1903, professor of physiology Warren Lombard wrote an article in which he described (what he believed was) a paradox that occurs when a person performs any type of Squatting movement. It was dubbed “Lombard’s Paradox” because he was unable to understand how a person was able to perform a Squat, despite an apparent conflict […]


  • “The Direction of Force” in Exercise Analysis

    “The Direction of Force” in Exercise Analysis

    The direction of the force you produce, during an exercise, determines which muscle is loaded more, and which muscle is loaded less. How do you determine the direction of force you’ll use during an exercise? It is dictated by the direction of resistance provided by each exercise. Let’s say you (at a bodyweight of 200 […]


  • Understanding (Not Misinterpreting)
    “Knee Strain”: Leg Press vs Leg Extension

    Understanding (Not Misinterpreting) “Knee Strain”: Leg Press vs Leg Extension

    This particular study was done in 1993, and was published in PubMed.gov: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8346760/ Unfortunately, some people refer to this study as “evidence” that Leg Extensions are “bad for the knees”. However, that is NOT the conclusion of this study. This is an example of cognitive bias, whereby people hear or read what they WANT to […]